IN THIS SECTION
Planning for successful restoration involving sustainable shoreline techniques requires an understanding the physical resources that impact the shoreline and the relevant regulatory and legal frameworks. It also require access to resources to support the use of native species. Not sure what you’re looking for? We’ve compiled a resource library for you here.
Physical forces along the Hudson
Understanding the cause of erosion is key to successful outcomes. The following resources can help designers and practitioners better understand a site’s characteristics and the physical forces that impact it. They also can inform the choice of an appropriate management technique.
- Hudson River Physical Forces Analysis: Data and Methodology is an analysis of the physical forces that impact the Hudson’s shorelines. It provides critical information on the parameters required for the proper design of ecologically enhanced shoreline stabilization projects, including wind and waves, vessel wakes, currents, and ice.
- Hudson River Estuary Flow Model compiles simulated riverside water circulation statistics from a high-resolution numerical model of circulation in the tidal Hudson, using data from 2010. Parameters include water levels, currents, vertical current stresses and mixing, and surface wind waves. This can be used to understand the energy regimes impacting shorelines and help identify suitable shoreline stabilization alternatives.
- Hudson River Wake Study is an analysis of the wake climate within the river; it was developed to help understand the erosion potential of wakes.
Ice and climatology
- Ice Data from 2006-2012: NYS Clearinghouse (search under Hudson River Ice Climatology)
- Tidal Hudson River Ice Cover Climatology is a compilation of observed ice data probabilistic statistics, including ice thickness, distribution, percent cover, and type. It is based on United States Coast Guard daily ice reports along the tidal Hudson from December to March, 2004–2015.
- Large Seasonal Modulation of Tides due to Ice Cover Friction in a Midlatitude Estuary is a study of the relationship between ice on the Hudson and seasonal tidal amplitude cycles. It also addresses the implications of tidal ranges, currents, vertical mixing, and salt front intrusion.
Bathymetry and topography
- Hudson River Flood Impact Decision Support System is an interactive map application that supports evaluation of the scale of potential flooding for tidally-affected shorelines, under a variety of sea level rise and storm scenarios, of the Hudson River Valley and the Long Island Sound coast of Westchester County.
- Hudson Valley Natural Resource Mapper is a user-friendly, interactive, online mapping tool that gathers more than 30 geographic data sets for the Hudson River estuary watershed. The data aids land-use decision-makers in identifying and conserving priority lands that benefit communities and contribute to watershed health.
- New York OPD Geographic Information Gateway is an interactive mapping tool that provides public access to data, real-time information such as tides and water quality, and interactive tools for use in planning and visualization.
- The NY GIS Clearning House hosts the Shoreline Types Polyline, which shows shoreline types for the tidal Hudson River, from the Tappan Zee Bridge to Troy.
- The NY GIS Clearning House hosts SAV (Hudson River Estuary Documented Submerged Aquatic Vegetation) polygons, which show the extent of SAV (water celery and water chestnut) in the estuary, with separate coverage for 1997, 2002, and 2007.
- Hudson River Tidal Wetlands offers maps of the Hudson’s vegetated habitats. It contains polygons showing the tidal wetland distribution from Hastings-on-Hudson to Troy. Data were interpreted from an aerial photo inventory acquired in 2007.
- Significant Coastal Fish and Wildlife Boundaries was identified by the NYS Department of State, Division of Coastal Resources for the State’s Coastal Management Program.
- New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System (NYHOPS) provides meteorological and oceanographic conditions in real-time and forecasted up to 72 hours in the Hudson River, the East River, NY/NJ Estuary, Raritan Bay, Long Island Sound, and the coastal waters of New Jersey. Graphic images are available of water level; surface and bottom temperature; surface and bottom salinity; surface and bottom currents; NOAA winds; coastal wave height, period, and direction; and CDOM (Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter).
- Vegetation of Riprapped Revetments along the Freshwater Tidal Hudson River, New York is an analysis of the abundance and composition of vegetation in riprap revetments on Hudson River shorelines. It showed that revetments commonly host a mix of ~50% native and 50% non-native plants. Shorelines varied from nearly barren to flush with plants. The potential to increase habitat value with ecologically-informed design and management is discussed.
- The Ecology of Freshwater Wrack Along Natural and Engineered Hudson River Shorelines explored the ecology of wrack on different types of Hudson River shorelines. The study found that engineered shorelines tended to accumulate little wrack, have high wrack loss rates, and exhibit low diversity of invertebrate communities. These indicate a loss of ecological function.
- The Ecology of Wrack: Decomposition and Use By Invertebrates On Natural and Engineered Shorelines of the Hudson River focuses on decomposition rates and invertebrate communities of wrack on four different types of Hudson River shorelines. Faster decomposition rates and lower invertebrate density were found on cribbing, compared to the other shoreline types. Riprap showed similar decomposition rates and invertebrate density to the rocky shoreline. The findings show that neither cribbing nor riprap can replace the ecological function of natural sandy shorelines.
- Biodiversity in Hudson River Shore Zones: Influence of Shoreline Type and Physical Structure documented the biodiversity supported by different kinds of shore zones in the Hudson River Estuary. Physical characteristics and biological communities were assessed for six common shore zone types. It was found that engineered shore zones (especially cribbing and bulkheads) tend to have less desirable biodiversity characteristics than “natural” shore zones (e.g., they have fewer fish and native plants and more invasives). No single shore type provided high values for all of the ecological functions assessed.
- The Ecology of Freshwater Shore Zones provides a comprehensive summary of what is known about the ecological functioning of the shore zone in freshwater ecosystems.
- Gastropods of the Hudson River Shoreline: Subtidal, Intertidal, and Upland Communities focuses on gastropod abundance and diversity at six types of shore zones: sand, bedrock, unconsolidated rock, riprap, seawall, and timber cribbing. The study found that riprap and unconsolidated rock at intertidal elevations contained significantly higher abundance and diversity of gastropods. Sand beaches and seawall structures were less supportive. The survey found three aquatic species which were new records for the Hudson.
- Effects of Surface Roughness on Ecological Function: Implications for Engineered Structures in the Hudson River Shore Zone investigates whether and how manipulation of surface roughness on artificial structures alters its ecological function in the shore zone. Tiles with different surface roughness were deployed at four sites on the freshwater tidal Hudson, and the accumulation of algae, organic matter, and macroinvertebrates was measured. Two sites had high-energy conditions and two had low-energy conditions. It was found that surface roughness can alter ecological function, but the effects depend at least partially on site-specific factors, including exposure to wave energy and the pre-existing food web structure.
Regulatory and legal resources
All shoreline projects must be fully permitted by the appropriate state and/or federal agencies. To determine whether a particular project would require a permit, contact your state permitting office. The following guidelines and resources pertain to New York State.
Do I need a permit for my shoreline project (in New York State)?
The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) recommends the following resources for determining which permits are needed for a particular project:
- Environmental Resource Mapper. The Environmental Resource Mapper (ERM) shows the approximate location of NYS-mapped freshwater wetlands, the location and classification of streams/waterbodies, occurrences of threatened and endangered species, and more (using the “Layers and Legend” ribbon). The ERM can be used to review a project area and/or determine whether a permit application needs to be submitted to the NYSDEC. It can also be used to create and print maps that can be submitted as part of the permit application process.
- Permits, Licenses, and Registrations. This webpage from the NYSDEC website shows common permits, licenses, registrations and certifications needed for projects and activities.
- NYSDEC Permit Administrators. Contact an NYSDEC permit administrator for comprehensive information on regulations related to a potential shoreline project.
Required supplements to your application (in New York State)
Additional Required Application Items. This resource contains a list of required supplements to your New York State permit application. Regulators need this information to understand the project goals and evaluate how best to mitigate potential impacts. This resource also contains information about application fees for environmental permits.
For comprehensive information on additional required application items, contact your local NYSDEC Permit Administrators office.
More regulatory resources
Joint Application Form (scroll down to the top of the “Waterways, Coastlines, & Wetlands” table). and instructions Keep in mind that other agencies- including federal, state, and local- may also have jurisdiction over shoreline activities, and may require permits for a project. This resource contains information on submitting a joint application to the NYSDEC, the New York State Office of General Services, the New York State Department of State, and the US Army Corps of Engineers.
NYSDEC Permit Applications (DART) search. This resource can be used to check the status of permit applications that have been submitted.
Tidal Datums and Their Application. This document provides background information on tidal datum planes. Tidal datums are chiefly used to determine horizontal boundaries, and for estimating heights or depths. The legal determinations of private and public lands, state owned tidelands, state submerged lands, U.S. Navigable waters, U.S. Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, and Exclusive Economic Zone, and the High Seas, or international waters, depend on the determination of tidal datums and their surveyed intersection with the coast.
Mitigating Shore Erosion on Sheltered Coasts discusses the legal demarcation between private and public lands, the “shoreline,” which is usually taken to be the intersection of the mean high water line with the beach profile
Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines Project: Legal Framework Analysis summarizes relevant plans, laws, and policies at the federal, state, and local levels. It covers topics including water quality control, wetland protection, stormwater management, disaster mitigation, floodplain management, environmental review, local land use controls, and other laws and programs. For each area, the report describes policy purpose and implementation, identifies limitations and concerns, and suggests opportunities to promote informed shoreline management and protect habitats.
The following resources can support evaluation of the costs and benefits associated with sustainable shorelines.
- A Comparative Cost Analysis of Ten Shore Protection Approaches at Three Sites Under Two Sea Level Rise Scenarios compares 10 shoreline protection methods at three sites along the Hudson. The study calculated the costs for construction, maintenance, and replacement as they are affected by increasing sea level rise and storms. It found that over a 70-year period, cumulative costs for ecologically enhanced shoreline treatments can be comparable to harder approaches.
- Economic Tradeoffs Between Shoreline Treatments: Phase I—Assessing Approaches: A Report Prepared for the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserves sets forth a framework for an economic assessment of different shoreline approaches by distilling key ecosystem services that should be included in a cost-benefit analysis. The framework generates information that decision-makers can use to compare the long-term costs of different shore treatments.
- Resiliency and Economic Development Guidance by NYSDEC provides information on shoreline natural processes, structure design, and the permitting process to help engineers, surveyors, contractors, and landowners select the shoreline management alternative that minimizes project impacts while achieving the necessary protection.
Native planting resources
Native plants are the backbone of ecosystems, providing habitat and food for the native species that make our ecosystem thrive. This video discusses the importance of planting native meadows, but the reasoning applies to all other native habitats as well.
The following resources are intended to aid individual landowners, landscapers and restoration practitioners in choosing New York native plant species for planting projects in the Hudson River watershed. These resources are not comprehensive. If you have any questions or suggestions with regard to expanding them, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Native Planting Guides and Resources
- Native Flowers for Landscaping and Gardening- NYSDEC
- Native Species Planting Guide for New York City
- Native Plants for Birds- Audubon
- Native Plants for Pollinators- The Xerces Society
- Guide to Planting Your Trees and Shrubs- Trees for Tribs, NYSDEC
- New York State Stormwater Management Design Manual: Landscaping Guidance/ Plant Lists for Ponds and Wetlands
- Ecological Communities of New York State- New York Natural Heritage Program
Native Plant Nurseries
The following table shows nurseries that sell plant species found in or near the Hudson River Estuary. The plants sold are not necessarily the native cultivars. For a true restoration project where native cultivars are needed, please inquire with the nursery or other seller as to where the seed stock or propagated plants were originally sourced.
|Catskill Native Nursery||607 Samsonville Road||Kerhonkson, NY, 12446||845-626-2758||nursery-propagated North American perennials, fruits, shrubs and trees.|
|Ernst Conservation Seeds||9006 Mercer Pike||Meadville, PA, 16335-9299||800-873-3321||seed mixes, live stakes, live cuttings, live whips, rooted cutting/bareroot plants|
|Helia Native Nursery||342 N Plain Rd||Housatonic, MA, 01236||413-528-1400||New England / NY locally propagated plants|
|Long Island Natives||220 Old County Rd||Eastport, NY 11941||631-801-2855||perennials, grasses, trees and shrubs|
|NYS Tree Nursery||2369 NY-50||Saratoga Springs, NY, 12866||518-581-1439||bareroots from NY seed-sources, order in winter for delivery in spring|
|The Native Plant Center at SUNY WCC||75 Grasslands Road||Valhalla, NY 10595||914-606-7870||native plants (sold 1x per year)|
|The Plantsmen Nursery||482 Peruville Rd. (Route 34B)||Groton, NY, 13073||607-533-7193||native grasses, shrubs, trees, perennials, shade and wetland plants, propagated in-house.|
|Waterford Gardens||74 E Allendale Rd||Saddle River, NJ, 07458||201-327-0721||aquatic plants|
|WHOLESALE/ APPOINTMENT ONLY|
|American Native Plants||7500 Marshy Point Rd||Middle River, MD, 21220||410-529-0552||native trees, shrubs, Herbs|
|Earth Tones Native Plants||212 Grassy Hill Rd||Woodbury, CT, 06798||203-263-6626||native plants|
|New England Wetland Plants, Inc||820 West St||Amherst, MA, 01002||413-548-8000||native plants and trees, wetland seed mixes|
|Fiddlehead Creek||7381 NY-40||Fort Ann, NY, 12827||518-623-5505||native plants|
|Octoraro Native Plant Nursery||6126 Street Rd||Kirkwood, PA, 17536||717-529-3160||native plants|
|Pinelands Nursery||323 Island Rd||Columbus, NJ, 08022||609-291-9486||native trees, shrubs, grasses|
|Southern Tier Consulting||2701-A Route 305 PO Box 30||West Clarksville, NY,1 14786||585-968-3120||wetland shrubs, trees, cutting, fascines, seed mixes|
|Sugarloaf Native Nursery||22300-A Dickerson Rd||Dickerson, MD, 20842||240-489-4367||trees,shrubs, perennials, aquatic plants, herbs and grasses|
|Vermont Wetland Plants||29 Old Foundry Rd||Orwell, VT, 05760||802-948-2553||wetland shrubs, trees, herbs, seed mixes|
|White Oak Nursery||801 W Washington St||Geneva, NY, 14456||315-789-3509||native trees and shrubs|
Sources for Biodegradable Landscaping Materials
The following table shows sources for purchasing landscaping materials, such as tree tubes, coir rolls, and other bio-engineering products for use in planting, landscaping and shoreline erosion control. Wholesale-only suppliers are listed for larger-scale projects.
|Arbor Day Foundation||2611 Arbor Avenue||Nebraska City, NE, 68410||tree tubes, waterers|
|Eco-Systems, Inc.||6640 N. Old State Road 37||Bloomington, IN, 47408||812-339-6664||bio-engineering products: coir logs and blankets, geo-fabrics|
|Ernst Conservation Seeds||9006 Mercer Pike||Meadville, PA, 16335-9299||800-873-3321||wattles/fascines, live branch layering, brush mattresses, posts, coir logs, and blankets.|
|Forestry Suppliers, Inc.||205 West Rankin Street||Jackson, MS, 39201||800-647-5368||weed mats|
|Rolanka International||155 Andrew Dr.||Stockbridge, GA, 30281||800-760-3215||coir, synthetic bioengineering products|
|Tree Pro||3180 W 250 N||West Lafayette, IN, 47906||800-875-8071||tree tubes and stakes|
|Tree Protection Supply||5 Haynie St||Newnan, GA, 30263||770-683-2390||tree tubes and stakes|
|ACF Environmental||20 Continental Blvd.||Merrimack, NH 03054||603-377-7795||erosion control fabrics|
|Conservation Services||1620 North Delphine Ave||Waynesboro, VA, 22980||540-941-0067||tree tubes, stakes, weed mats|
|Ecofabriks||P.O. Box 8402||Gaithersburg, MD 20898||1-877-264-7628||coir products|
|East Coast Erosion Control||443 Bricker Rd||Bernville, PA, 19506||610-486-8496||erosion blankets, coir mats, textiles|
|Erosion Control Blankets||Highway 8 and Vidir Line Rd||Riverton, Manitoba, R0C TR0, Canada||1-866-280-7327||erosion control fabrics|
|GEI Works||PO Box 780928||Sebastian, FL 32978||772-646-0597||wattles, coir logs, erosion control, stakes, turbidity curtains|
|Hanes Geo Components||815 Buxton Street||Winston-Salem, NC 27101||888-239-4539||wattles, coir logs, erosion control, geotextile fabrics, stakes|
|L&M Supply||60 Walnut Street Unit 2||Marcus Hook, PA 19061||800-948-1770||coir logs, erosion control, turbidity curtains|
|North American Green||14649 Highway 41||North Evansville, IN, 47725||800-772-2040||coir and synthetic bio-engineering products|
|Octoraro Native Plant Nursery||6126 Street Rd||Kirkwood, PA, 17536||717-529-3160||tree tubes and stakes|
|Pinelands Nursery||323 Island Rd||Columbus, NJ, 08022||609-291-9486||bio-engineering fabrics|
|Western Excelsior||901 Grand Ave||Mancos, CO, 81328||1-866-540-9810||erosion control fabrics|