Black Bears

Project of the Hudson River Estuary Program

Compiled and edited by Tom Lake, Consulting Naturalist

Across our two Almanac weeks there were several highlights. However, the once-in-a-lifetime solar eclipse made the greatest impression on an overwhelming number of people. It is estimated that 50 million people across North America made time on April 8, pausing their daily schedules, to view the solar eclipse.

Highlight of the Week

4/8 – Hudson River Watershed: A solar eclipse, the first in our area since 1925, was witnessed by thousands of residents on April 8 as well as many travelers from faraway places. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the Sun and Earth. When the Moon blocks all the Sun’s light, it is called a total solar eclipse. If the Moon blocks only part of the Sun’s light, it creates a partial solar eclipse.

This solar eclipse stretched across a 124-mile wide path of northern New York State that included the Adirondack Mountains and adjacent areas. The eclipse began at 2:13 p.m. and reached maximum eclipse at 3:27 p.m. The next solar eclipse in our area of the Northeast is scheduled to occur in 2079.
– NASA

Solar eclipse

Solar eclipse – with permission by NASA

Natural History Entries

3/30 – Bronx, New York City: I spotted a lone double-crested cormorant swimming in the Bronx River today where it flows through the Bronx Zoo. Given its smattering of white feathers, the bird appeared to be semi-leucistic. It was my first sighting of any cormorant at the Bronx River Bronx Zoo location.
– Vivian Young

3/31 – Beacon, HRM 61: In a very rewarding four-hour fishing session at Long Dock, I caught and released two male 6 lb. common carp, 26 and 27-inches long. I had expected that channel catfish would be the first species to become active this month, yet the carp were a most welcome surprise.
– Bill Greene

3/31 – Quassaic Creek, HRM 60: Glass eel (immature American eel) research via fyke nets has been ongoing in selected Hudson River tributaries across 150 miles from Albany County to Staten Island, New York City, since 2003. Over the last 12 years it has been a DEC managed citizen-science project involving students of all ages. Research catches compiled daily—counted, cataloged, and released—have ranged from empty nets to prodigious numbers, solely dependent on the roller-coaster pulse of glass eels in from the sea and the many poorly understood vagaries of the river.

Today was the 8th anniversary (2016) of an impressive catch, the heft of which was difficult for the two of us to lift out of the water. This came one day after a totally empty fyke net (those vagaries again). The water temperature was seasonally warm at 53 degrees Fahrenheit.

As we peered into the throat of the net, we were stunned to see a writhing mass of glass eels. It took my partner, Hannah Ring, and I more than three hours to count the 6,004 glass eels and six elvers (last spring’s glass eels). The local press had covered the lift, but they grew tired of us carefully counting so many tiny (50 mm) glass eels, one at a time, and they left after the first two hours.
– Hannah Ring, Tom Lake

Glass eels

Glass eels – courtesy of T.R. Jackson

3/31 – Orange County, HRM 43: On Easter Sunday I walked and birded the Winding Waters Trail at the Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge in the Black Dirt Region, not far from Pine Island. There are hundreds of green-winged teal, but the highlight was a falcon, a male American kestrel.
– Matt Zeitler

[Roger Tory Peterson applied common names to our three most common falcons alluding to their assumed prey size: American kestrel (sparrow hawk), merlin (pigeon hawk), and peregrine falcon (duck hawk). Tom Lake]

American kestrel (male)

American kestrel (male) – courtesy of Matt Zeitler

4/1 – Waterford, HRM 158: I finally received the first evidence of a hatch today, a shift in the position of the female in bald eagle nest NY485 on Peebles Island. During incubation, the female was always laying low in the nest, head visible, and back mostly not visible. Today, what I’m assuming was the adult female, became much more visible, higher in the nest than before, and seemed to be feeding a nestling.
– Howard Stoner

[Last year, the single NY485 nestling hatched on April 7, with the first food brought to the nest the following day. That nestling became a successful fledgling on June 27. Howard Stoner]

4/2 – Hudson River Watershed: Can you guess what made these marks and why they were made on Nancy Howe Russell’s pickup truck? For the answer read the last entry, April 12, in this week’s Almanac.
– Mary Holland

Mystery marks

Mystery marks – courtesty of Nancy Howe Russell

4/3 – Dutchess County, HRM 98.5: Lea Stickle collected two specimens today of the bloody-red shrimp (Hemimysis anomala) with our glass eel fyke net in the Saw Kill (Annandale-on-Hudson). This species has been known from the tidal Hudson but seems to have become more noticeable recently (a Hemimysis anomala was caught in a trawl collections by Normandeau Associates last August near river mile 76).

We have a native mysid shrimp in the Hudson River (Neomysis americana), that prefers salt water. The bloody-red shrimp does well in freshwater and brackish water to 18 parts-per-thousand.
– Bob Schmidt

[The bloody-red mysid (Mysida) is a shrimp-like crustacean native to the freshwater margins of the Black Sea, the Azov Sea, and the eastern Caspian Sea. It has been spreading across Europe since the 1950s. In 2006, the species invaded the North American Great Lakes via ballast water exchange of commercial vessels (Kipp 2007).]

Bloody red-shrimp

Bloody-red shrimp (Hemimysis anomala) – with permission by NOAA

4/3 – Manhattan, HRM 1-2: Our Hudson River Park’s River Project staff and interns checked our research gear (pots and traps) that we deploy at Piers 26 and 40 as part of our fish ecology survey. Alongside an increasing amount of grass and sand shrimp present in traps, the first white perch (190 millimeters) of the year was collected from a crab pot at Pier 40.
– Toland Kister, Siddhartha Hayes, Brandon Campos

[Note: One-inch equals 25.4 millimeters (mm). Tom Lake]

4/4 – Town of Poughkeepsie: The evidence continues to accumulate that there is a nestling in bald eagle nest NY62. Today I watched as one of the adults carried a foot-long goldfish to the nest. Why are goldfish such a common catch by eagles?
– Bob Rightmyer

[Eagles are renowned for their excellent eyesight, and the bald eagle is no exception. They have two foveae, or centers of focus, that allow the birds to see both forward and to the side at the same time. Bald eagles can see fish in the water from several hundred feet above, while soaring, gliding, or in flapping flight. This is quite an extraordinary feat, since most fish are counter-shaded, meaning they are darker on top and thus harder to see from above.

Eagles have eyelids that close during sleep. For blinking, they also have an inner eyelid called a nictitating membrane. Every three or four seconds, the nictitating membrane slides across the eye from front to back, wiping dirt and dust from the cornea. Because the membrane is translucent, the eagle can see even while it is over the eye.

Eagles, like all birds, have color vision (see goldfish). An eagle’s eye is almost as large as a human’s, but its sharpness is at least four times that of a person with perfect vision. The eagle can probably identify a rabbit moving almost a mile away. That means that an eagle flying at an altitude of 1,000 feet over open country could spot prey over an area of almost three square miles from a fixed position. Pete Nye]

NY62 Bald Eagle with goldfish

NY62 Bald eagle with goldfish – courtesy of Bob Rightmyer

Fish of the Week

4/5 – Hudson River Watershed: Fish-of-the-Week for Weeks 263-264 is the goldfish (Carassius auratus), number 35 (of 237) on our watershed list of fishes. If you would like a copy of our list, e-mail trlake7@nullaol.com.

Goldfish, a nonnative introduced species, is one of three carps (Cyprinidae) documented for the watershed. The other two are common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Amur carp (C. rubrofuscus). The common carp also has a variety called mirror carp.

Their Type Site, where it was first described to science, is China, after which it was introduced to Japan and then to the rest of the world. They arrived in North America from eastern Asia in the late 17th century. Their species name Carassius auratus, comes from Latin: Carassius = carp, auratus = aurantium = orange (New Latin). It is not unusual to spot a bald eagle flyover any day of the year carrying a bright orange goldfish in its talons

We are used to thinking of goldfish as an aquarium pet; considering them as having a life in the wild requires a conceptual adjustment. Goldfish favor shallow, muddy, warm vegetated backwaters where they tolerate diminished water quality. In the wild, goldfish can survive in brackish environments with a salinity of up to 15 parts-per-thousand and can reach 19-inches. They have a varied diet that consists of algae, detritus, small crustaceans, aquatic insects and their larvae, snails, zooplankton, amphibian larvae, and fish eggs.

In the wild, goldfish readily hybridize with carp (Cyprinus sp.). To tell goldfish vs. carp juveniles apart in the field, goldfish have no barbels on their upper jaw, carp have four barbels, and goldfish-carp hybrids have 1-3 barbels. Currently, there are about 200 targeted breeds of goldfish recognized in China. They span a range of eight colors but tend to be primarily red or red-orange. Other colors can be olive or bronze-toned burnished gold and yellow. From a distance, in the wild, orange goldfish can be confused with koi (Sanke var.). The latter (Amur carp) are bred orange, with white and black patches. In field identification, the carp-goldfish barbel counts apply.

In J.R. Greeley’s A Biological Survey of the Lower Hudson Watershed (1937), the author describes his true feelings regarding goldfish: “This species, in the wild state, constitutes a worthless, although apparently not seriously destructive addition to the fish population.” That seems like a stern and rather narrow definition of the worth of goldfish.

Foot-long goldfish in the Hudson River are not rare. Entrepreneurs with a gillnet or seine capture goldfish for sale to wholesale aquarium fish dealers or owners of backyard pools and ponds. Small goldfish are also used as live bait by anglers, who then release their leftovers at the end of the day.

An urban legend suggests that many 5 &10-cent store-bought goldfish made their way into the river via flushed toilets. There was a time when a flushed toilet had a nearly uninhibited path to the river. The backstory to the flush theory would have parents warning their children to “Clean your goldfish bowl, or else.” Eventually the or else became a journey to the river via the toilet, or a visit to the river where Mom and Dad clandestinely emptied the goldfish bowl.
– Tom Lake

Goldfish

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) – courtesy of Amanda Higgs

4/5 – Hudson River Watershed: At 10:23 a.m., the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) USGS measured a 4.8 magnitude earthquake centered in northern New Jersey. It was plate tectonics at work. It was the strongest quake in the Northeast 100 years.
– U.S. Geologic Survey)

[Magnitude is a measurement of the strength of an earthquake. Officially it’s called the moment magnitude scale. It’s a logarithmic scale, meaning each number is ten times as strong as the one before it. A 5.2 earthquake is moderate, while a 6.2 is strong. A 4.8 magnitude is considered as “minor, or no damage.”

4/5 – Yonkers, HRM 18: Our research and education team at the Sarah Lawrence Center for the Urban River at Beczak returned to our tidemarsh this morning to check our fyke net. The count was a decent 109 glass eels. We have now surpassed our previous seasonal high of 3,571 glass eels (2022), and currently stand at 3,906 for the 2024 season. The water temperature had fallen to 44 degrees, the salinity was 3.6 parts-per-thousand, and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 10.8 parts-per-million.

Right at the end of our collection, we felt the tremors of the 4.8 magnitude earthquake!
– Jason Muller, Diane McKay, Caitlin McCabe, Dylan Sandow, Louisa Hausslein

4/6 – Town of Poughkeepsie: A strong and sustained north wind made it an excellent kite-flying day. One of the adults in bald eagle nest NY62 brought a hefty channel catfish to the nest. Afterwards, they were both perched on the rim of the nest, a good indication there was a third bird down inside. Adult eagles seem to be ever cognizant of how fragile new hatchling can be and give them plenty of space.
– Tom Lake

NY 62 Bald eagle with channel catfish

NY62 Bald Eagle with channel catfish – courtesy of Bob Rightmyer

4/6 – Hook Mountain, HRM 31: We counted 48 northward bound raptors today at the Hook Mountain Hawkwatch. Osprey was high count with eleven. Among non-raptor migrants, Turkey vulture (825) and black vulture (9) were the combined high count. Great numbers of turkey vultures were very purposeful in going directly north or north-by-northeast with none of them hesitating or lingering long. From noon to 2:00 p.m., the turkey vulture parade was impressive with one group totaling more than 100 birds.
– Tom Fiore

4/7 – Essex county, HRM 257: I heard two new spring sounds to add to the few that I’ve been able to nail down thus far. This morning around Johnsburg, near North Creek, I heard the unmistakable sound of a male ruffed grouse drumming in the woods. Back home in Minerva, I heard an eastern phoebe singing in a tree off route 28N. While we still had half-a-foot of snow in the woods, it will be gone soon.
– Mike Corey

4/8 – Hudson River Watershed: Among notable moments connected to a solar eclipse:

  • One of the earliest recorded solar eclipses took place during the reign of the Assyrian king Ashur-dan III on June 15, 763 BCE (before the Common Era, 2,763 years ago). This event is documented in the Assyrian Eponym Canon, a series of cuneiform tablets.
  • William Shakespeare used a solar eclipse in his play “King Lear” to foretell tumult and madness.
  • While the ancients viewed a solar eclipse as a sign of great acts of God, physicists viewed the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse as a triumph of science. During the 1919 solar eclipse, in which the sun vanished for six minutes and 51 seconds, scientists measured the bending of light from the stars as they passed near the sun providing the first observational evidence of Albert Einstein’s theory of General Relativity that describes gravity as a warping of space-time (NASA).
  • Arguably the greatest thoroughbred racehorse of all time was foaled (born) during a solar eclipse on September 25, 1764. The owner named the colt Eclipse (Clee 2012).
Solar eclipse sequence

Solar eclipse sequence – courtesy of Jimmy Westlake

4/8 – Essex County: A group of Platte Clove, Greene County, diehard eclipse chasers ranging in age from eight to sixty-five, made a three-hour trek up the Northway (I87) to Fort Ticonderoga in eastern Essex County where we joined hundreds of other enthusiasts on the shore of Lake Champlain. With clouds covering many sites in the Northeast, it was just serendipity that the spot we chose turned out to be one of the best.

Hundreds of diving ducks mingled in rafts out on the lake that was flat as a pancake. A rare Eurasian migrant, the tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), was spotted, a new life-lister for some. High on the warm thermals were four ospreys who periodically swooped down to fight over a nesting platform with spectacular aerial displays of flying talons.

As eclipse time neared, anticipation rose. At the predicted 2:13 p.m. start, the air temperature was 77 degrees Fahrenheit; by the time it reached totality at 3:23 p.m., it had dropped to 54 degrees, a remarkable chilling effect of 23 degrees in a 40-minute period. Then came the dramatic magical moment when the sun slipped into totality and off came the filter glasses. Nothing can quite prepare you for this surreal, awe-inspiring moment. In the darkened sky, the sun appeared like a glowing coronal ring with a brilliant diamond. Venus and Jupiter burst into view. The grass took on a deep vibrant green hue and reds looked purple (this is known as the Purkinje Effect).

Far out over the lake, the edge of totality could be seen as a narrow band, “sunrise or sunset,” surrounding us 360 degrees. This line was racing at 1,500 mph over the North American continent as seen from the International Space Station.

In that magical moment the entire world was transformed, and a glowing jewel remained in the sky and all human kind in its path was transfixed. A sun/moon light phenomenon called “Bailys Beads” (Francis Baily, 1836), was seen for a moment as light refracted through the moon’s mountains and craters. For two-minutes and twenty-three seconds, we were absorbed in a cosmic wonder of symmetry and perfect alignment. Robins did their evening song, then stopped during totality, and then began their morning songs.

Then, as though on cue, the faint glimmer of the returning sun’s light showed once again as a diamond ring and a collective cry of jubilation rose from the hundreds of onlookers. The rapidly returning sunshine lit the still-tinted world with an uncanny light, at first a crescent, then rapidly expanding, and with its return came solar radiant warmth. This day will remain as a lifetime memory.
– Mario Meier

[The name “Ticonderoga” comes from the Iroquoian word tekontaró:ken, meaning “it is at the junction of two waterways,” lakes George and Champlain (Afable 1996).]

[Lake Champlain is technically not within the boundaries of our Hudson River Watershed thus not technically eligible for inclusion in the Almanac. However, you can argue there is a thread-connection from Lake Champlain to the Hudson River via the Hudson-Champlain Canal at Fort Edward. This is part of what is known as the American Lakes-to-Locks Passage, a waterway connection, or Route du Richelieu. On occasion, an entry is ecologically significant enough to justify stretching the boundaries just a bit. Tom Lake]

4/8 – Hamilton County, HRM 317: I was set up for the solar eclipse at the Long Lake beach. As the eclipse neared total, I was surprised how “bright” it was with only a thin sliver of the sun remaining to be eclipsed by the moon. I expected but heard no common loons calling. A batch of common ravens passed over, possibly a dozen, perhaps on their way to a roost. A pair of turkey vultures was gliding in a duet on a thermal earlier in the day. The pair apparently have chicks in a nest nearby.
– Walt Nelson

[The collective noun for a group of common ravens can be a conspiracy, a rave, or best of all, an unkindness. Tom Lake]

4/8 – Minerva, HRM 284: For today’s solar eclipse, we were fortunate to be in the path of totality that included 90 seconds of complete total eclipse. It was great!

With 99% coverage, just before totality, it was still somewhat light out, a witness to how overwhelmingly bright the sun is. During totality, we could take off our pesky black glasses (for 90 seconds) and watch the total eclipse. During that time, it became dark, but not quite nighttime dark—more like well after sunset dark—and the air temperature dropped 15 degrees. With totality, the birds became silent. We spotted Venus and Jupiter, but no stars. We were able to see a small red solar flare at the bottom left quadrant (“seven o’clock”) of the eclipsed Sun.
– Mike Corey

Solar eclipse

Solar eclipse – courtesy of R. Kettering

4/8 – Warren County, HRM 235: While our journey today to watch the solar eclipse did not quite reach an area of totality, we still managed a 98% eclipse, just missing with a tiny sliver of sunlight. The near-total eclipse was still a “Wow” moment. The ambient light reminded us of a very early gray pre-dawn. We heard one male red-winged blackbird call, and then nothing, except for chorusing crickets that were convinced night was about to fall.
– Tom Lake, Tommy Jackson, Benjamin Jackson

Solar eclipse watching

Solar eclipse watching – courtesy of Anonymous

4/8 – Hyde Park, HRM 82: In mid-afternoon I began to look for wildlife reactions to the solar eclipse. The spring peepers in the wetlands adjacent to Crum Elbow Creek in front of my Moose lodge began their singing around 3:00 p.m. as the encroaching eclipse turned day into dusk.
– Peter Panelli

Solar eclipse sequence

Solar eclipse dequence – courtesy of R. Kettering and S. Decker

4/9 – Albany, HRM 145: The air temperature reached 77 degrees Fahrenheit today, tying the record high for the date.
– National Weather Service

4/9 – Hook Mountain, HRM 31: We counted 102 northward-bound raptors today at the Hook Mountain Hawkwatch. American kestrel was high count with 49. Among non-raptor migrants, turkey vulture was high count with 44.

It was a great spring day for American kestrel movement with nearly 50 passing the summit of Hook Mountain. Almost all were males, with no more than two females definitively noted all day. Almost all of them came close by the summit. Many chose a track that took them past, or just slightly below, the southeast face of the mountaintop just above the cliff face that is a part of the Palisades formation rocks that we have along the western side of the Hudson Valley.
– Tom Fiore, Kristine Wallstrom, Steve Sachs

4/10 – Beacon, HRM 61: During a five-hour fishing session on Long Dock today, I caught, measured, and released a channel catfish (18-inches) and a male common carp (20.5-inches). The fish were caught on the last of the flood tide that peaked in early afternoon. Some bait-stealing was also going on that ordinarily indicates the presence of golden shiners.
– Bill Greene

4/10 – Yonkers, HRM 18: Our research and education team at the Sarah Lawrence Center for the Urban River at Beczak returned to our tidemarsh at high tide today to check our fyke net. Our glass eel numbers continued to rise (305), showing no signs of slowing. The highlight of our catch, however, was seven summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus). The water temperature was 48 degrees, the salinity had fallen to 2.8 ppt, and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 10.5 ppm.
– Jason Muller, Ronan Selbi, Rachel Lynch, Fiona Goodman

4/11 – Yonkers, HRM 11: Our research and education team at the Sarah Lawrence Center for the Urban River at Beczak returned to our tidemarsh at mid-tide this morning to check our fyke net. Our glass eel numbers continued to rise (322) and we are now approaching 5,300 glass eels for the season. This is a remarkable number for us, and the season still shows no signs of slowing down.

Our bycatch was spectacular, as it was yesterday, and included two Atlantic croakers (Micropogonias undulatus), 17 summer flounder, and one grass shrimp (Palaemon sp.). The water temperature was 47 degrees, the salinity was 3.5 ppt, and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 10.3 ppm.
– Jason Muller

Atlantic croaker

Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) – courtesy of Jason Muller

4/12 – Mystery Photo Answer: Nancy Howe Russell and Jim Russell’s pickup truck was acting as a “salt lick,” visited by white-tailed deer. This confirms the quest for salt on the part of white-tailed deer in the spring in the form of tongue marks on the side of their salt-laden truck.

Almost all soils more than 25-50 miles from the seacoast are low in sodium. In addition, in spring and summer, many of the plants white-tailed deer consume have higher amounts of potassium and water which interferes with efficient sodium conversion, leaving white-tailed deer with an increased need for sodium. Does (female deer) are particularly vulnerable as they need twice as much sodium as bucks this time of year due to reproduction demands.
– Mary Holland

4/12 – Yonkers, HRM 11: Our research and education team at the Sarah Lawrence Center for the Urban River at Beczak returned at high tide to our tidemarsh today to check our fyke net. We found our highest glass eel count of the season at 495. The water temperature was 50 degrees, the salinity was 3.7 ppt, and the dissolved oxygen (DO) was 9.9 ppm.
– Jason Muller, Diane McKay

Total solar eclipse

Total solar eclipse – courtesy of Marta Zolnowski

Spring 2024 Natural History Programs and Events

Trees for Tribs Potting Up

April 26 9:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.
NYSDEC Region 3 Office
21 South Putt Corners Road
New Paltz, NY 12561

Celebrate Arbor Day with the Hudson Estuary Trees for Tribs by helping us transfer 2,500 bareroot seedlings into soil that we will use to help protect streams. Come prepared to work with soil and get dirty.

Bring a water bottle and gardening gloves if you have them. No prior experience is necessary.

Registration is required.

Register for the Potting Up Volunteer

Science Saturday’s at Norrie Point Environmental Education Center

Norrie Point Environmental Education Center will be hosting “Science Saturdays”. Events are free and open to the public. Learn more about Science Saturday events.

Upcoming events:

  • May 4, 9 a.m.-12 p.m.: I Love My Park Day
  • June 8, 11 a.m.-1 p.m.: Get Outdoors Day

Volunteer for the Hudson River Striped Bass Cooperative Angler Program

Do you fish for striped bass in the Hudson River? Whether you catch-and-release or take home a keeper, you can be part of the Cooperative Angler Program. Share your fishing trip information and help biologists understand and manage our striped bass fishery.

Here’s how it works:

  • Fill out a logbook we provide or record your trips on your smartphone using DEC’s Hudson River online logbook (PDF) whenever you fish on the tidal Hudson River (by boat or on the shore);
  • Record general location, time, gear used, what you caught (or if you didn’t catch anything); and
  • Return the logbook when you are done fishing.

Join today! For more information on the angler program and instructions on installing the Survey123 App to access the online logbook, visit Hudson River Cooperative Angler webpage or email hudsonangler@nulldec.ny.gov.

Note: If you primarily fish for striped bass in New York waters south of the George Washington Bridge, the DEC has a separate Striped Bass Cooperative Anglers Program.

Volunteer for the Hudson River Eel Project

We are seeking volunteers to help study eels in streams of the Hudson River estuary! Volunteers check specialized nets for young transparent “glass eels” as they enter freshwater from their spawning grounds over 1,000 miles away in the Atlantic Ocean. Eels are counted, weighed, and released upstream, and environmental conditions are recorded. Sample sites include streams from NYC to near Albany, and all gear is provided.

If you’re interested in participating, email eelproject@nulldec.ny.gov and include where you live and a little bit about yourself, so we can match you with the best nearby site. For more information, visit the Hudson River Eel Project webpage.

Hudson River Miles

The Hudson is measured north from Hudson River Mile 0 at the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan. The George Washington Bridge is at HRM 12, the Tappan Zee 28, Bear Mountain 47, Beacon-Newburgh 62, Mid-Hudson 75, Kingston-Rhinecliff 95, Rip Van Winkle 114, and the Federal Dam at Troy, the head of tidewater, at 153. The tidal section of the Hudson constitutes a bit less than half the total distance—315 miles—from Lake Tear of the Clouds to the Battery. Entries from points east and west in the watershed reference the corresponding river mile on the mainstem.

To Contribute Your Observations

The Hudson River Almanac is compiled and edited by Tom Lake and emailed weekly by DEC’s Hudson River Estuary Program. Share your observations by e-mailing them to trlake7@nullaol.com.

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Helpful Resources

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration online tide and tidal current predictions are invaluable when planning Hudson River field trips. For real-time information on Hudson River tides, weather, and water conditions from sixteen monitoring stations, visit the Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System website.

DEC’s Smartphone app for iPhone and Android is now available at New York Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife App.